Their names are suggestive that they were probably aristocrats, women who were born to a high class. Greet my dear friend Persis, another woman who has worked very hard in the Lord. All ancient writers who commented on Romans 16:7 understood the name to be feminine, from the early church Fathers until the 13 th century. But they were not compiled until later, and they were not regarded as scripture until later. 1 Cor. 5:6), Israel (Rom. 16:15). Here are a couple of papers arguing for the hendiadys idea. There were both men and women named Olympis in the ancient world. She is the likely courier of this letter, and is heading up arrangements for Paul’s visit to Rome (15:32). One ancient Greek manuscript and a number of ancient versions read the name “Julia.” Most editors have interpreted it as a man’s name, Junias. Not only I but all the churches of the Gentiles are grateful to them. Both his theology and his attitude were questionable. Recently I enjoyed preaching on Romans 16. Mary is the fourth Roman Christian on the list. 9Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and my dear friend Stachys. She bore and preserved this letter all along that hazardous journey from Corinth to Rome. Tryphaena [trigh-FEE- 20The God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet. . Seven women have been mentioned so far, including Phoebe, and Paul has said something about the ministries of each of these women. I only wish I’d had this 50 odd years ago when as a teenager I was being fed the “women silent in the church” line, which I always had trouble accepting! I should be able to turn it in my PDF reader. 11:16). His name means "called," and he certainly proved himself to be one whom God had called. Romans 16:21. Which are in the Lord - This might intimate that some of this family were not Christians; those only of that family that were converted to the Lord being saluted. Nereus’s sister Romans 16:15 Approaching this term from a statistical perspective, we should expect to find the non-technical sense In Romans 16:1. The author of Romans is a slave or servant of Christ (Rom. Names Of God Video – Very Inspiring! Designed by Brugel Creative | © Margaret Mowczko, Exploring the biblical theology of Christian egalitarianism, Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window), Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window), Partnering Together: Paul’s Female Coworkers, Tabitha: An Exemplary Disciple (Acts 9:36-42). Her area of interest is the mutuality (equality) of men and women in Christian ministry and marriage. Rom. I’m glad it’s useful to you. We do not know much more about her, but her name has been preserved forever because of this mention. Say hello to Ampliatus, my dear friend in the Lord. Junia. [1] More about Phoebe here. (My own transl.). Phoebe, however, was not a member of the Roman church but lived in … 16:1,2 - Phoebe is a deaconess (diakonos) in the church of Cenchrea, a “helper (prostatis) of many” including Paul. Adam Clarke Commentary. Paul also mentions Lucius, Jason, and Sosipater, his relatives. Years ago I visited the Natural Bridge of Virginia. (1-2) A recommendation of Phoebe. In fact, he gives no examples of the verb in ancient papyri until later, and these very few examples are just allusions rather than examples. Take Romans 13. Hearing and seeing the amazing names of God helps us know who God is, and it gives us a deep sense of awe for our wonderful and great God and Father. In those days, too many good citizens – good Christians! ... Name in Hebrew reads שלומית (Shlomit) and is derived from Shalom שלום, meaning "peace". Note the large number of names in Romans 16:3–15 of those then in Rome, and verses 5, 15 and 16 indicate there was more than one church assembly or company of believers in Rome. Unless I’ve missed it, these chapters say nothing about teaching. Romans 16 begins with a recommendation which was written in order to introduce a woman by the name of Phoebe to the Christian community in Rome. It is this group, probably, that Paul is referring to. Thank you for the link to why I Timothy 2:12 is not clear, and I appreciate your helping me in this. They were engaged in warfare that never ended until they left this life, so they kept on fighting. The photo that shows up when this article is shared on social media is of Joanne Whalley and John Lynch who play Priscilla and Aquila in the 2018 movie Paul: Apostle of Christ. The couple is described in terms of their relationship with Paul (and other apostles) and their ministry. Paul wanted to foster unity among the believers in Rome and between the different house churches. Andronicus and Junia were a missionary couple who had been persecuted for their faith. Within those named in chapter 16, probably eight were women. In this post I’m going to introduce one of the many woman mentioned in Romans 16. Genesis 3 tells us that Eve wrongly handed Adam a piece of forbidden fruit. "You are not your own; you are bought with a price," (1 Corinthians 6:19b-20a NIV). Nympha is mentioned as having a church that meets in her house, but some insist she was not a church leader. This may have been the case in Corinth too. In the Gospels we are told that as our Lord was making his way down the Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem, on his way to the cross, he was so weak from loss of blood that he tripped and fell. 6Greet Mary, who worked very hard for you. But here in Romans 16 is a list of names of men and women who never knew that they were going to be famous. Priscilla, with her husband Aquila, explained Christian doctrine to Apollos, and they corrected him, but some insist she was not teaching. They are outstanding among the apostles, and they were in Christ before I was. Say hello to the members of the household of Narcissus who are in the Lord. She was not behaving badly towards women, but to a man, probably her husband, so there’s no reason to mention women. He gained much wealth, because he was in charge of the correspondence of the emperor. Furthermore, even though the levels of illiteracy may have been exaggerated in the past, most people were not competent readers; many couldn’t read at all. There are no examples of the name found in any document or inscription from the first century or any other era. Herodion, my kinsman - Probably another converted Jew. Greet Mary, who worked very hard for you. Later he sends greetings from eight who are with him in Corinth. 1:1 and 1 Tim. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. It is difficult to know for sure which Mary this is, since there were so many with this name who were followers of Jesus. We tend to think of those ancient days as a time of limited travel, and they were. Women occupy a prominent place in these letters of the New Testament. 5–6 of of those he names were women. 6-16. Have you noticed how many of the cults today are trying to go back to the Scriptures, arguing from them a groundwork for their faith? Greet Apelles, tested and approved in Christ. However, on pages 12-13 Edgar points out that this activity was only restricted from women in relation to men, and he therefore concludes it must be a positive exercise of authority. I enjoyed this movie a lot. Series: From Guilt to Glory -- Experienced. The fact that she is not named may be a mark of respect and perhaps indicates she is an older person. The people Paul greets are male and female, young and old, Jew and Gentile, slave and free. They always use scriptural language. I’ve numbered and named the people, along with the verse or phrase from Romans 16:1-16 where they are mentioned. Phoebe was a minister in Cenchrea, a port town of Corinth. Greet one another with a holy kiss. Now we have this warning paragraph. Apparently Phoebe was on her way to Rome (probably entrusted with this precious letter) and Paul sends an advance recommendatio… If no one can see a man or woman praying and prophesying then what does it matter how they wear their hair, or if their head is covered or uncovered? If it is "Junias" with an "s," as we have it here, it is a male; if it is "Junia," as the King James Version has it, it is female. The word is the same for male or female.) What is especially interesting, however, is that seven of the ten women are described in terms of their ministry (Phoebe, Prisca, Mary, Junia, Tryphena, Tryphosa, Persis). No less than 24 persons were saluted by name, plus household groups of Aristobulus and of Narcissus, plus the mother of Rufus and the sister of Nereus. His readers are “called to belong to Jesus Christ” (Rom. The structured note is certainly very clear on our topic!! Harnack’s Positive Descriptions of NT Women Ministers. Romans 16:16 NIV. This is an interesting question because a study of "in Christ" will reveal to us the meaning and implications of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. That’s an interesting and valid point about Genesis 3:17, Taylor. Asyncritus Romans 16:14 All class distinctions disappeared within the church and that is what happens whenever the church works. I can just imagine them knitting and darning and crocheting, these dear maiden sisters who worked very hard. It may also refer to a congregation (or, house church) hosted by Aristobulus, but it is odd that Aristobulus himself is not explicitly greeted. Knowing names. Ampliatus was a common male name, especially of slaves in the imperial household, but we know nothing about this man except that he was a dear friend (“beloved”) of Paul. Rather, it gives insight into the church in Rome and it reveals Paul’s esteem and regard for some of the believers there. Ignore them. Phoebe -female -deacon -probably a business woman -has social position, independence -was a great help to Paul and others -is entrusted to take the letter from Paul to Rome -from Corinth. Romans 16:24 is the same as Romans 16:20 b. 6. Greet Mary, who laboured hard for you. (See 1 Cor. Nine of these people were with Paul -- eight men and one woman. Looking back over his paper, I can see how he made many assumptions. The handwritten note was actually written by T.C. That was part of my devotional scripture reading this morning and since I have been long-intrigued by it and have wanted to distinguish the names by gender, I decided to take time to Google it as a question I have needed to ask for a long time. Most of the names in this chapter are members of the Roman church that Paul is sending greetings to. I also see no reason for Edgar’s assertion that the word for “to teach” and “to domineer” intensify each other. The same verb occurs five times in the second half of 1 Cor. Moving on to page 24: I have never heard 1 Timothy 2:15 CSB described as “a domestic issue,” as Dr David Scholer put it. Marg has a BTh from the Australian College of Ministries and an MA in early Christian and Jewish studies from Macquarie University. Greet also the church that meets at their house. The couple hosted and led a house church in Rome which is also greeted. This again takes us back to the earliest days of the gospel ministry when perhaps young Saul of Tarsus, coming to Jerusalem to sit at the feet of Gamaliel, the great Jewish teacher, had probably stayed in the home of Simon of Cyrene and his two sons, Alexander and Rufus. 25. 19Everyone has heard about your obedience, so I am full of joy over you; but I want you to be wise about what is good, and innocent about what is evil. Verse by verse exegesis on Romans 1:1-17 V. 1 Mentioned of author or sender‟s name in the very beginning of a letter was a common practice in the ancient days of Roman Empire as we have seen in historical background. Second, the context demands nothing more than a general sense, rendered adequately as a servant of the church at Cenchrea. Rather, it gives insight into the church in Rome and it reveals Paul’s esteem and regard for some of the believers there. Romans: Quote: Genesis: Isaiah: Other: Rom 1:17: as it is written, The just shall live by faith. . I must say that I am troubled today when I see Christians succumbing so easily to the world's philosophy of life -- live for your own pleasure, try to retire as early as possible so you can do as little as you can. The last paragraph is reserved for next Sunday and our Communion service. You can tell by the way they act that is what they want. Paul mentions that this meeting is for the purpose of eating (e.g., 1 Cor. NRSV, Rufus may be a son of Simon of Cyrene, the man who was forced to carry Jesus’s cross. Erastus, who is the city's director of public works, and our brother Quartus send you his greetings. In Mark 16:15, we can see that the word creature must refer to an intelligent, thinking person. ), Rufus’ mother is the eighth woman listed in Romans 16:1-16. Was she Simon of Cyrene’s widow? You can see how the gospel penetrated all levels of society, with slaves, public officials, consuls, leaders of the empire, all sharing an equal ground of fellowship in the church of Jesus Christ. Phoebe is described as a diakonos of the church at Cenchrea, but some insist she was not a minister but a servant. Twenty-nine people are mentioned in Romans 16:1-16, with twenty-eight based in Rome. In the latter part of Verse 10 and in Verse 11 two groups are mentioned, involving Christians and, perhaps, non-Christians as well: Greet those who belong to the household of Aristobulus. Note that in both halves of 1 Corinthians 11 the word “church” is used. Would you like to support my ministry of encouraging mutuality and equality between men and women in the church and in marriage? Paul makes a point of highlighting the ethnicity of some of his fellow Jews, his suggeneis (Rom. 2. She is one of the group of unknown women in the Gospels who had the gift of helps. More about Prisca and Aquila here. They also ministered in the synagogue, for Luke tells us that one morning they heard a mighty and eloquent man named Apollos preaching, but it was evident to them that he did not understand the fullness of the gospel, for he preached only what John the Baptist taught, that "One was coming, who would do mighty things." By Ernie and Mary Kroeger. Greet Mary. (Romans 16:12-13 NIV). I would enjoy hearing your thoughts on that. Rom. The most famous Narcissus we know in Roman history was a former slave who became the personal secretary of the Emperor Claudius. 14:23 specifies “the whole church” (i.e. 7Greet Andronicus and Junias, my relatives who have been in prison with me. The grace of our Lord Jesus be with you. If so, it means that even in the royal household there were a number of Christian servants and slaves who exercised great influence on the leaders of Rome -- even the emperor himself. She believes that if we are in Christ we are part of the New Creation and part of a community where old social paradigms of hierarchies and caste systems have no place (2 Cor. 21. CEB. Moore is a pastor at Roots Covenant Church in St Paul, Minnesota. His attitude is lamentable and cause for concern. One is, “Contextualized Interpretation of I Timothy 2:12: An Analysis,” and the other is, “I Timothy 2:12: An Analysis of Restrictive Interpretation.” I have been reading some of your articles on 1 Timothy, and I would appreciate your thoughts on Edgar’s papers. Learnt a lot from your study in romans 16. Romans 16:3 Greek Prisca, a variant of Priscilla; Romans 16:7 Or are esteemed by; Because of their ministry to him, Apollos went on to Corinth, where he had a mighty ministry in the Word of God. In these first 24 verses there are 33 names mentioned. Rather, he affirms them and their ministries. Some of these dear people had only the gift of helps (although I should not say "only" the gift of helps, for that is a great gift.) Shortly after Nero came to the throne, he forced Narcissus to commit suicide, as he did many men. . If it was only a few not-quite-right statements or mistakes, I might be able to address them, but there are too many to respond to. Lucius appears to be the same one who comes from Cyrene, mentioned in Chapter 13 of Acts as one of the teachers in the city of Antioch. T.C. He only tells the men (1 Tim 2:8). CEB. The God of peace, who will preserve the peace of the church, will also crush Satan under your feet." Thank you for your thorough analysis of Romans 16. He realized that the work of the Lord is like a tapestry. 16:1,2 - Phoebe is a deaconess (diakonos) in the church of Cenchrea, a “helper (prostatis) of many” including Paul. There is some uncertainty as to whether the second name represented a man (Junias) or a … When Paul gives direct practical advice about the whole church in 1 Cor. Somewhere along the line they shared a prison term with him. She had travelled to Rome where one of her tasks was to deliver Paul’s letter. another house church, as with the group mentioned in v. 14. So I don’t understand this point about reading. So yes, Eve handed Adam a piece of fruit and said something to him (Gen 3:6; 12f; 17). I’ve heard a few complementarian scholars use the word “positive” in discussions when describing “to teach” and authentein, but I really don’t know what they mean. This inspiring video shows several of the most important Hebrew names of God. They risked their lives for me. I apologize for it being upside down; I am not sure how to change it. The vast majority of Christian were not taught the Old Testament scriptures by personally reading them but by having them recited to them in group meetings. So he asks that these people and the various households be greeted. We have people today who emphasize tongues, or prophecy, or some phase of teaching that they think is the mark of a true believer, to the exclusion of everything else. It is difficult to know for sure which Mary this is, since there were so many with this name who were followers of Jesus. That is why, at the beginning of this letter, he says, their "faith is being reported all over the world," (Romans 1:8 NIV). Finally, they understood that the gifts of the Holy Spirit among them opened up a ministry for every single believer. Read More. The Roman soldiers laid hold of a passing stranger whom they compelled to bear the cross to Calvary. Keep away from them. By Ernie and Mary Kroeger. See here.). There are 24 names mentioned in Rome -- 17 men and 7 women. Their motives, Paul says, are not to serve Christ, even though they say they do. Roman 11:24 After all, if you were cut out of an olive tree that is wild by nature, and contrary to nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree, how much more readily will these, the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree! Paul is evidently thinking of his own trip to Jerusalem and the threat that awaits him from the Judaizers there, Verses 17-20: I urge you, brothers, to watch out for those who cause divisions and put obstacles in your way, contrary to the teaching you have learned. More about Junia here. All the churches of Christ send greetings. Günther Bornkamn, Paul (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995) 80; Joan Cecelia Campbell, Phoebe: Patron and Emissary (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 2009), 13-14; Robert Jewett, “Paul, Phoebe, and the Spanish Mission” in The Social World of Formative Christianity and Judaism: In Tribute to Howard Clark Kee (Philadelphia: FortressPress, 1988), 153-154; Susan Mathew, Women in the Greetings of Rom 16:1-16: A Study of Mutuality and Women’s Ministry in the Letter to the Romans  (Durham University: Durham E-Theses, 2010), 4-19. But in the greeting to Persis, Paul uses a definite article instead of the pronoun equivalent to “my” (cf. I am sure that if they had known that mention in one of Paul's letters was to give them undying fame, there would have been a long line of people outside his door urging him to include them in the letter. The premise was that I Corinthians 11:2-16 refers to a non public setting and is not about conduct in the public church meetings. 11:10). Now here is your word from the Lord: Do not follow them; do not get involved with these separatist groups. And it makes no difference if there are one or two activities being prohibited. : Hendrickson, 1991) (A PDF of this chapter is freely available here.) KJV) V. Vashti - queen, and … Authentein was not a good thing. He wanted to ease tensions among the Romans, including ethnic tensions (cf. Hi Bill, Your comment has warmed my heart. In the New International Version, “Christ” appears 453 times! Its inclusion in both places in some manuscripts is thought by scholars to have been accidental. continue in xyz.” This sounds very domestic to me. Contrary to Kroeger and Liefield, I do not think that “to originate” is the sense of authentein in 1 Timothy 2:12. These kinds of prejudiced, baseless statements from Edgar make it difficult to take his work seriously, let alone critique it. Greet Mary. 1:1 and 1 Tim. That is a sexist term. (Romans 16:10b-11 NIV). Mary the wife of Clopas (John 19:25; note that in this verse three of the four women mentioned had the name "Mary"). You can’t remember their name. Edgar doesn’t get it! And note the singular and plural verbs in 1 Timothy 2:15 CSB. It would be helpful if you could give me links to free versions of Edgar’s papers. 2I ask you to receive her in the Lord in a way worthy of the saints and to give her any help she may need from you, for she has been a great help to many people, including me. All the churches of Christ send greetings. Your email address will not be published. Ps 51:4: Rom 3:10-12 Enjoy this video and share it … Also, God didn’t “teach” either; he commanded. Recently I enjoyed preaching on Romans 16. A woman, Prisca (also known as Priscilla), heads this list. These factions always cause division. In this case, the first mention of Mary in the Bible would be Miriam, the sister of Moses, in Exodus. While that is true, I have always wondered why Genesis 3:17 mentions Adam listening to the voice of his wife since it is not mentioned that she said anything. After Phoebe, twenty-eight Roman Christians are listed. Some scholars believe, however, that the last chapter of Romans was not originally part of Paul’s letter to the Romans, but part of a letter the apostle wrote to the Christians in Ephesus. And what a testimony they left us. . 16:5, 8, 9). 11:20-21). You have a spirit of wanting to obey what the Lord says. [2] Two ninth-century manuscripts of Paul’s letters, Augiensis (F) and Boernerianus (G), have a  slightly different name, the name Olympida, which is the accusative form of the name Olympis.