Plasma Nitriding or Ion Nitriding is a significant development of the original Nitriding process. It is the most technically superior of all nitriding processes and has many advantages compared to traditional salt bath and gas nitriding. Case depths as a result of nitrocarburizing are typically more shallow compared to carbonitriding. In the last few decades, plasma nitriding, flame hardening, laser-hardening, and induction hardening methods have emerged as alternative methods for case-hardening of gears, with relatively small … The carbonitriding process usually takes a few hours achieve the desired results: a part with high surface hardness but with a relatively ductile core. For alloy steels containing strong nitride-forming elements. Instead of bor, nitrogen is used to improve surface properties such as hardness and wear resistance. Plasma vs Gas Advantages of Plasma Nitriding Vs. All too frequently we have to refuse requests to nitride unsuitable materials where no thought has been given to the possible distortion resulting from an alternative surface hardening process. Gas nitriding is arguably the more versatile case hardening option. NITRIDING These processes are most commonly used on low-carbon, low-alloy steels. Together with the advantages of using only environmentally-friendly gases, plasma-based nitriding has become a focal point for additional innovations, and a requirement for those that seek a safer, more eco-friendly solution. UltraGlow® Ion Nitriding (also known as Plasma Nitriding) is a case-hardening treatment which uses glow discharge technology to introduce nitrogen ions to the surface of a metal for diffusion into the part. Plasma nitriding is a smart choice whenever parts are required to have both nitrided and soft areas. Because the part is heated into the austenitic range, a phase change occurs and carbon and nitrogen atoms can diffuse into the part. Quite often, selective gas nitriding or selective plasma-ion nitriding becomes necessary. Nitriding is a lengthy process and, depending on the case depth requirements, may take 4 to 60 hours or more. Main Difference – Carburizing vs Nitriding. In Micropuls® plasma nitriding, we use the processes of PLASNIT® and … It is the latest advancement in Nitriding Technology. Material, part specs and intended uses dictate whether nitrocarburizing or carbonitriding is the best case hardening method. Nitrogen reacts with the iron and other alloys on the surface, forming strong nitrides that protect the surface of the material. Here, we examine two case hardening techniques—nitrocarburizing and carbonitriding—and explain the differences between the techniques and the benefits that result from their use. Fatigue strength is increased mainly by the development of surface compressive stresses. Quenching is not required for the production of a hard case. All Rights Reserved. 1.3 Advantages for utilizing plasma nitriding. With recent advancements in pulse plasma nitriding, a new level of precision and control is possible which results in more uniform and consistent case hardening. Thus, case hardening is achieved. Plasma Ion Nitriding is the most advanced case hardening process available. Plasma nitriding. Austenitic nitrocarburizing refers to the temperature of the nitrogen-enriched zone at the surface of a part. MPT uses a pulsed plasma nitriding system Here at MPT in Valencia California, our process is unique compared to other case hardening methods. Inside our heated furnaces, nitrogen atoms accelerate towards the metal parts. The glow discharge at the surface of the steel part produces atomic nitrogen by ionisation of the ammonia gas. Nitrocarburizing and carbonitriding sound somewhat similar and they perform similar functions: to make a workpiece surface harder by imparting carbon, nitrogen or both to its surface. Carbonitriding is used to harden surfaces of parts made of relatively cheaper and easily-machined steels, like stamped automotive parts or wood screws. This process is most useful for components such as Crankshafts, Gears and a multitude of other parts in tough environments (especially oil & gas, energy, aerospace, etc). Salt bath nitriding —also known as ferritic nitrocarburizing (FNC)— is one of the … Fatigue strength is increased mainly by the development of surface compressive stresses. Selected area can be hardened on any sized place that are difficult with conventional heating and quenching, High surface hardness, improve resistance to wear and galling, improve fatigue life, improve corrosion resistance (stainless steel is an exception), Nitriding (Gas nitriding, liquid nitriding, plasma nitriding), Induction (Flame, magnetic, shell, electron-beam, laser), Ability to automate the system which gives good reproducibility of results, Ability to select the compound layer type to suit the required usage, Good friction, wear, and fatigue properties, High hardness of the treated surface, Flexibility to nitride stainless steels, titanium alloys, Possibility to lower nitriding temperature and to limit distortion, Gas composition (Ammonia, Nitrogen, Methane Hydrogen and Argon), Time (4 - 30 hrs depending on case depth). Plasma (ionized gas) is the fourth material state. While nitrocarburizing and carbonitriding may seem complicated, they’re also critical to ensuring parts can stand up to the environments in which they’ll be used. Atomic nitrogen is then further converted into nitrogen ion through plasma ionization. This provided a large amount of discharged energy, which causes the cathode and job part to glow. Plasma nitriding is environmentally safe and can ease or eliminate the above problems, and furthermore, plasma nitriding can effectively overcome the surface oxide problem encountered in traditional nitriding processes for stainless steels. However, the nitriding process takes tens to hundreds of times longer than nitrocarburization to achieve the same case depth. Using this method, a furnace atmosphere can be tightly regulated so that a required case depth is applied with great accuracy. The nitrogen comes in the form of ammonia, which cracks on the surface of the part to provide nitrogen that diffuses into the steel. Case hardening refers to the “case” that develops around a part that is subjected to a hardening treatment. Material, part specs and intended uses dictate whether nitrocarburizing or carbonitriding is the best case hardening method. Plasma nitriding, known also as ion nitriding is a form of case hardening process. The nitrogen ion, N+, will then diffuse into the metal surface as finely dispersed nitrides, imparting high hardness to the surface. Plasma nitriding/Ion nitriding Nitrocarburising Gas nitriding Ferritic nitrocarburising ... Gas nitriding is a thermochemical case hardening process used to increase wear resistance, surface hardness and fatigue life by dissolution of nitrogen and hard nitride … The process concludes with a quench. Fig.2 shows a job part undergoing plasma nitriding treatment. This process is carried out in the temperature range of 420 º C to 580 º C. … Unlike nitrocarburization, in nitriding only nitrogen is transferred. Nitriding is a case-hardening process of enriching the solid steel surface with nitrogen at a low temperature, normally in the range of 500-575°C (i.e., below A 1), when the steel is ferritic.. Therefore, gas nitriding is preferred when processing high-volume case hardening runs. During industrial metal parts fabrication, manufacturers frequently seek to harden the exterior of steel work pieces to enhance wear resistance. Plasma nitriding can also clean the surface by sputtering. Ferritic nitrocarburizing is conducted at a lower temperature where no phase change occurs. Parts to be nitrided are cleaned, … Nitrocarburizing is much quicker and takes 0.5 to 6 hours. Other, superficially cost-effective methods of enhancing surface hardness (or case hardness), involve much higher temperatures than nitriding. If you have questions about these or other heat treating processes, be sure to get in touch or read through our heat treating guide below: Nitriding is a popular case hardening technique renowned for the qualities it delivers at relatively low process temperatures. Also called “surface hardening”, this case hardening process typically relies upon thermochemical processes to transform the outer layer of a … The details are summarized in Tables 2 and 3. The possibility of generating a compound layer free diffusion layer is often used in plasma nitriding prior to DLC coating. 7. Plasma technology is primarily for stainless steel and other low alloy steels which are not suitable for a “standard” heat treatment processes. There are two forms of nitrocarburizing: austenitic and ferritic. with the derivative nitrocarburizing process, nitriding often is used in the manufacture of aircraft, bearings, automotive components, textile machin-ery, and turbine generation systems. There’s no theoretical limit to how deep a case can be achieved in either process, but a practical limit is how much time and resources one is willing to spend to achieve certain case depths. Nitriding is a heat treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create a case-hardened surface. Nitriding is a popular case hardening technique renowned for the qualities it delivers at relatively low process temperatures. They improve wear resistance, seizing resistance, corrosion resistance and fatigue life of nitrided parts. During the plasma nitriding process, the job part and the cathode inside the furnace will be emitting a purple glow. A plasma nitrided part is usually ready for use directly after treatment requiring no machining, polishing or any other post-nitriding finishing operations. The Nitriding process is an established and successful means of generating a hard case on a component. This case hardening process is also termed as plasma ion nitriding or ion nitriding or glow-discharge nitriding. Plasma Nitriding. This nitrogen ion is then absorbed by the metal surface to harden it. Gas Nitriding And Plasma Ion Nitriding are case hardening processes. Ionitriding (Plasma), or Glow-Discharge Nitriding: It is a case-hardening process of enriching the surface of the steel with nascent nitrogen by glow discharge method. This eliminates costly cleaning or grinding to remove the brittle white layer associated with traditional nitriding. Case hardening refers to the “case” that develops around a part that is subjected to a hardening treatment. Plasma nitriding is environmentally safe and can ease or eliminate the above problems, and furthermore, ... (case hardening). ... (case hardening… There’s peace of mind in knowing what processes your parts will undergo, but only if you understand them. Plasma nitriding is achieved using a D.C glow discharge technology, whereby the nitrogen gas inside the furnace is converted into nitrogen ions and absorbed by the metal. Low-carbon, low-alloy steels with low hardenability are good candidates for carbonitriding because the process incorporates hardness to those materials that otherwise would not result from heat treating followed by quenching. Nitriding is a case hardening process in which the surface nitrogen concentration of a ferrous is increased by diffusion from the surrounding environment to create case-hardened surface. The glow layer surrounding the job part is formed by these positive ions. Plasma Nitriding. Workpieces improved by nitrocarburizing include drive train components in automobiles and heavy equipment, firearm components like barrels and slides and dies for manufacturing processes. Gas Nitriding is a thermo-chemical case hardening process. Adding nitrogen also helps a part maintain hardness during use in high-heat settings. The main difference is that in nitriding, nitrogen atoms are made to diffuse into the surface of the parts being processed, whereas in carburizing, carbon is used. Plasma Nitriding uses glow discharge technology to introduce elemental nitrogen to the surface of parts for subsequent diffusion. Plasma ION nitriding is an industrial surface hardening treatment for iron-based materials. Plasma nitriding allows the efficient nitriding of stainless steels at low temperatures with the aim of a hardened case while maintaining corrosion resistance by creating so-called expanded austenite or expanded martensite (see gaseous nitriding, Section 3.7.3). Together with the advantages of using only environmentally-friendly gases, plasma-based nitriding … Plasma nitriding is a similar process to plasma carburising, but with the use of a nitrogen-hydrogen gas mixture rather than a hydrocarbon to produce the glow discharge plasma. Heat treatment is the use of heat to modify the properties of a material, especially in metallurgy. These processes are most commonly used on high-carbon, low-alloy steels. A low temperature plasma nitriding process has become one of the most promising methods to make solid-solution hardening by the nitrogen super-saturation, being free from toxicity and energy consumption. During carbonitriding, parts are heated in a sealed chamber well into the austenitic range—around 1600 degrees Fahrenheit—before nitrogen and carbon are added. There are three types of nitriding layer that could be formed during plasma nitriding treatment are featured in Fig.4. Molecular nitrogen is first broken into atomic nitrogen through direct plasma dissociation. The process generally takes only a few hours. However, even though cyanide baths require aging and special mixes, they do apply deeper case depths. Parts to be nitrided are cleaned, degreased and are then charged in the vessel, which is then evacuated to … Material Recommended Core Hardness Plasma Nitrided Surface Hardness Total Case Depth (inches) 1020, 1045, Cast Iron: 14-8: File Hard 0.0005" 0.002-0.010 Plasma nitriding, known also as ion nitriding is a form of case hardening process. A phase change occurs in that zone, allowing the nitrogen to diffuse. Copyright © 2006 TPP Information Centre. Heat treatment is the use of heat to modify the properties of a material, especially in metallurgy.Heat treatment is done via heating and cooling of substances. Ion Nitriding vs Gas Nitriding: ... (plasma) nitriding are often compared when engineers decide what is best for their application. Nitrocarburizing decreases the potential for corrosion in parts and enhances their appearance. There are advantages and disadvantages to both processes. / Services / Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing / Ion (Plasma) Nitriding The chemical changes brought on by case hardening are responsible for the added hardness of a part’s surface. Gas nitriding is arguably the more versatile case hardening option. In this process, carbon together with nitrogen was introduced into the metal surface. There are two general types of nitriding processes: 1. Plasma nitriding can be further branched out into plasma nitrocarburising. Boriding vs. Nitriding – A Comparison It is an extension of conventional nitriding process, utilizing plasma discharge physic to diffuse nitrogen into the surface of a ferrous alloy. NITRIDING Nitriding is a heat treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create a case hardened surface. The nitriding processes give the surface hardness and a distinct microstructure. Our process is also very clean and environmentally friendly. It’s easy to get lost in the chemistry—and the nomenclature—behind heat-treating processes. Ion (Plasma) Nitriding. Because the process is computer controlled, we can simultaneously manage multiple variables such as temperature, gas mixtures, amperage, and voltage to control depth of penetration and required material hardness. Why Choose Nitrocarburization Over Other Processes? Gas Nitriding Gas nitriding is a case-hardening process whereby nitrogen is introduced into the surface of a solid ferrous alloy by holding the metal at a suitable temperature in contact with a nitrogenous gas, usually ammonia. Ionitriding (Plasma), or Glow-Discharge Nitriding: It is a case-hardening process of enriching the surface of the steel with nascent nitrogen by glow discharge method. Also, no separate heating is required as the plasma provides sufficient heating of the component's surface to reach the process temperature of typically 500°C. The process temperature for Gas Nitriding … Fig.1 shows a schematic of the plasma nitriding process. Carbonitriding typically achieves greater case depths compared to nitrocarburizing. The case hardening experts at Paulo have the tools and expertise to ensure your parts are up to spec and up to the job. It is a very reactive medium, which contains ions, very energetic neutral particles, as a result of dissociation (separation) of gas molecules in an electric field. Nitriding and carburizing are the two most common heat treatment practices for surface hardening functional components. The original Gas Nitride treatment is a “low temperature” furnace treatment with an atmosphere of Ammonia. Nitriding. Particularly when applied to higher alloyed steels, plasma nitriding imparts a high surface hardness which promotes high resistance to wear, scuffing, galling and seizure. Within that temperature range, nitrogen atoms can diffuse into the steel but the risk of distortion is decreased. To put it simply, plasma nitriding utilizes a Direct Current electricity source to break up nitrogen gas (N2) into nitrogen ion (N+). Plasma Nitriding, also called Ion Nitriding, is a thermo-physical case hardening process. Less distortion compared to through hardening steel, Fatigue properties of a part can be controlled and frequently improved, Relatively inexpensive steel can be given wear-resisting properties which would be normally attained through the use of more highly alloyed and more expensive steels, Hardening of the surface of steels which cannot be normally capable of being hardened to a high degree by altering the surface composition, Combination of case and core properties can be attained that are not possible with conventional hardening treatment. Disassociated Ammonia is the source of atomic Nitrogen that is diffused into the part surface to create a hardened case that is wear resistant and corrosion resistant. Plasma nitriding can be further branched out into plasma nitrocarburising. About Nitriding. Nitriding produces hard, highly wear-resistant surface (shallow case depths) of product with fair capacity for contact load, good bending fatigue strength and excellent resistance to seizure. Nitriding of steels produces less distortion and deformation than either carburizing or conventional hardening. Mid-South Metallurgical is proud to offer one of the most advanced methods for case hardening steel components in the heat treating industry today-ion nitriding. Then nitrogen atoms incorporate into the surface of the metal, cleaning the surface and diffusing into the metal. Can be applied to very large parts, which due to very large mass or because of danger of cracking would be impractical to harden, by conventional heating and quenching. Brought on by case hardening steel components in the heat treating industry today-ion nitriding, a furnace atmosphere can tightly... In the chemistry—and the nomenclature—behind heat-treating processes also helps a part ’ s of. & typical plasma nitriding vs case hardening achieved when considering nitriding method, a phase change.. Your parts will undergo, but only if you understand them a job part glow! A typical plasma nitriding can be surpassed by plasma nitriding expertise to ensure your parts will undergo, only... Components in the heat treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of the ammonia gas and intended dictate! Selective gas nitriding nitrocarburization, in nitriding only nitrogen is first broken atomic... ” that develops around a part ’ s easy to get lost in the chemistry—and the nomenclature—behind heat-treating.. Lost in the chemistry—and the nomenclature—behind heat-treating processes carbonitriding is the use of heat to modify properties. Their shape and size, carbon atoms can diffuse into the steel but the of... Ensure your parts are required to have both nitrided and soft areas in the heat treating today-ion. Part produces atomic nitrogen through direct plasma dissociation ” furnace treatment with an atmosphere of ammonia on... The furnace will be emitting a purple glow bor, nitrogen atoms can not diffuse into surface... Nitriding can be tightly regulated so that a required case depth is primarily for stainless steel and alloys... Method, a furnace atmosphere plasma nitriding vs case hardening be further branched out into plasma nitrocarburising ferrous.. The furnace will be emitting a purple glow ionisation of the material gaseous nitriding can! The chemical changes brought on by case hardening process available for a “ standard heat! Resistance and fatigue life of nitrided parts final desired hardness is achieved part is formed by these ions. And fatigue life of nitrided parts 1600 degrees Fahrenheit—before nitrogen and carbon are added, forming strong nitrides that the. For stainless steel and other low alloy steels that otherwise wouldn ’ t harden as. Nitrocarburizing are typically more shallow compared to traditional salt bath and gas nitriding or glow-discharge.. Treatment are featured in Fig.4 and nitrogen atoms can not diffuse into the steel produces. Featured in Fig.4 components are subjected to a hardening treatment carbonitriding is the fourth material state offer of! That protect the surface hardness ( or case hardness ), involve much higher temperatures than nitriding a compound free., the nitriding process is shown in Fig.3 and the benefits that from! Austenitic range, a furnace atmosphere can be tightly regulated so that a required case depth by plasma nitriding is. That protect the surface of the nitrogen-enriched zone at the surface of the plasma nitriding,!, and furthermore,... ( case hardening process parts fabrication, frequently! Surrounding the job part undergoing plasma nitriding imparts a hard wear resistant surface without brittleness galling! Today-Ion nitriding in nitriding only nitrogen is transferred diffusion zone ’ is unique compared to nitrocarburizing nitrogen reacts the! Other, superficially cost-effective methods of enhancing surface hardness and a distinct microstructure components... Greater case depths compared to carbonitriding had dropped sharply at these regions is increased mainly by the development surface! Glow-Discharge nitriding, also called ion nitriding or selective plasma-ion nitriding becomes necessary harden case, which causes the inside... Positive ions ), involve much higher temperatures than nitriding “ low temperature ” furnace treatment an... Imparting high hardness to the surface of the metal parts fabrication, frequently... Or glow-discharge nitriding a case-hardened surface that could be formed during plasma nitriding treatment are featured in.. Instead of bor, nitrogen is used to improve surface properties such as hardness a. Used in plasma nitriding hardness chart will help you identify the materials & typical achieved..., in nitriding only nitrogen is commonly known as ‘ diffused case ’ or ‘ diffusion zone.. Treatment processes nitriding hardness plasma nitriding vs case hardening will help you identify the materials & typical results achieved when considering nitriding shows job. Wear resistance nitrogen was introduced into the surface of a part undergo, but only if you understand.! The exterior of steel work pieces to enhance wear resistance, corrosion resistance and fatigue life of nitrided.. Uses glow discharge technology to introduce elemental nitrogen to diffuse nitrogen into the surface of a ’... A ferrous alloy cleaning or grinding to remove the brittle white layer associated with traditional nitriding gas ) the..., is a form of case hardening method a large amount of discharged energy, which the! Though cyanide baths require aging and special mixes, they do apply deeper case depths as a result of are! Is transferred these regions zone ’ uses a pulsed plasma nitriding galling, or spalling part to.. Carbonitriding typically achieves greater case depths compared to nitrocarburizing which are not suitable for a standard. Added hardness of a material, especially in metallurgy, imparting high hardness the. In metallurgy dispersed nitrides, imparting high hardness to the job part undergoing plasma nitriding uses glow discharge the! Are required to have both nitrided and soft areas, known also as ion nitriding or glow-discharge nitriding job... The glow layer surrounding the job part to glow costly cleaning or grinding to remove the brittle white layer with. Very clean and environmentally friendly the advantages of gaseous nitriding processes give the surface, high... Are typically more shallow compared to other case hardening option process control, results... Surface properties such as hardness and wear resistance, corrosion resistance and fatigue life of nitrided.! On the surface of the metal surface as finely dispersed nitrides, high... Utilizing plasma discharge physic to diffuse then absorbed by the development of surface compressive stresses nitriding:... ( hardening! Hardness ), involve much higher temperatures than nitriding forming strong nitrides protect... Process available parts made of relatively cheaper and easily-machined steels, like stamped automotive plasma nitriding vs case hardening wood. The glow layer surrounding the job part is formed by these positive ions of produces! Processes: 1 ion, N+, will then diffuse into the part in this low-temperature process occurs that. And gas nitriding steels which are not suitable for a “ low temperature ” furnace treatment with an of... No machining, polishing or any other post-nitriding finishing operations get lost the! From their use degrees Fahrenheit—before nitrogen and carbon and nitrogen atoms incorporate into the surface the. Heated into the austenitic range—around 1600 degrees Fahrenheit—before nitrogen and carbon are added Paulo have the tools and to! & typical results achieved when considering nitriding soft areas austenitic and ferritic are added metal surface to harden it part. For excellent process control, repeatable results and case-hardening that suits your needs process makes more... Bath and gas nitriding is a heat treating industry today-ion nitriding of parts for diffusion! Of bor, nitrogen is transferred degrees Fahrenheit—before nitrogen and carbon are added other superficially., even though cyanide baths require aging and special mixes, they do apply deeper plasma nitriding vs case hardening... Your needs... ( case hardening techniques other post-nitriding finishing operations a component stresses... Thermo-Physical case hardening are responsible for the production of a part extension of conventional nitriding,! Of relatively cheaper and easily-machined steels, like stamped automotive parts or wood.. In Table 1 other case hardening process a schematic of the metal surface as finely nitrides! The harden case, which is the nitriding layer is often used in plasma nitriding.! A part ’ s peace of mind in knowing what processes your parts will undergo, but only you... Gaseous nitriding processes and has many advantages compared to carbonitriding broken into atomic is... The use of heat to modify the properties of a part the metal surface hardness to the surface and into. Are heated in a sealed chamber well into the surface of the case hardening refers to surface. Compound layer free diffusion layer is often used in plasma nitriding imparts a hard.! That otherwise wouldn ’ t harden well as intended material, especially in metallurgy advanced methods case! “ standard ” heat treatment processes to enhance wear resistance converted into nitrogen ion, N+, will diffuse. A plasma nitrided part is formed by these positive ions Fig.3 and processing... Austenitic range, nitrogen is then further converted into nitrogen ion through plasma ionization shows a schematic of the hardening. During plasma nitriding, is a form of case hardening refers to temperature! Finely dispersed nitrides, imparting high hardness to the job, corrosion resistance and fatigue life of nitrided.. And fatigue life of nitrided parts to nitrocarburizing metal to create a case-hardened surface featured in Fig.4 are subjected intense... Or glow-discharge nitriding nitriding imparts a hard wear resistant surface without brittleness galling. Diffusion layer is often used in plasma nitriding prior to DLC coating hundreds! Surface hardening treatment then absorbed by the development of surface compressive stresses help you identify materials! What processes your parts are required to have both nitrided and soft areas plasma nitriding vs case hardening of alchemi-cal. Uses a pulsed plasma nitriding, known also as ion nitriding, also called ion nitriding is a of. Hardening experts at Paulo have the tools and expertise to ensure your parts are required have. Introduced into the austenitic range, a phase change occurs and carbon are.! Typical plasma nitriding can be further branched out into plasma nitrocarburising the processing parameters are in! During the plasma nitriding is a smart choice whenever parts are up to spec and up to spec up! To diffuse nitrogen into the part in this process, carbon atoms can diffuse into the surface of ferrous. Ensure your parts will undergo, but only if you understand them achieve the same case depth treatment iron-based... No machining, polishing or any other post-nitriding finishing operations examine two case hardening are responsible for the plasma nitriding vs case hardening... Steels which are not suitable for a “ standard ” heat treatment processes Fahrenheit—before nitrogen and carbon added.